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1860s multi-barrel rapid-fire gun of Richard Gatling
This article is about the Gatling gun weapon. For more uses of the word, see Gatling (disambiguation). For the modern class of externally-powered weapons, see Rotary cannon. For the 1968 western film, see Gatling Gun (film).
Type of Rapid-fire gun, hand cranked Machine gun
Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for Gatling gun
1876 Gatling gun kept at Fort Laramie National Historic Site
TypeRapid-fire gun, hand cranked Machine gun
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1862–1911
Used byUnited States
Russian Empire
British Empire
France
Empire of Japan
Qing Empire
Siam Empire
Korean Empire
Chile
Peru
WarsAmerican Civil War
Anglo-Zulu War
Indian Wars
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Boxer Rebellion
Production history
DesignerRichard Jordan Gatling
Designed1861
ManufacturerEagle Iron Works
Cooper Firearms Manufacturing Company
Colt
American Ordnance Company
Produced1862-1903
Specifications
Mass77.2 kg (170 lb)[1]
Length107.9 cm (42.5 in)
Barrel length67.3 cm (26.5 in)
CrewFour-man crew

Cartridge.30-40 Krag
.45-70 Government
.30-06 Springfield
.43 Spanish
11x60mm Mauser
Caliber.308 inches (7.8mm)
Barrels6–10
ActionCrank handle
Rate of fire200 rounds per minute in .58 caliber, 400-900 rounds per minute in .30 caliber [2][3]
Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895

Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons, and a forerunner of the modern machine gun and rotary cannon. Invented by Richard Gatling, it saw occasional use by the Union forces during the American Civil War in the 1860s, which was the first time it was employed in combat. It was later used in numerous military conflicts, including the Boshin War, the Anglo-Zulu War, and the assault on San Juan Hill during the Spanish–American War.[4] It was also used by the Pennsylvania militia in episodes of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, specifically in Pittsburgh.

The Gatling gun''s "", 9 May 1865

The Gatling gun was designed by the American inventor Dr. Richard J. Gatling in 1861 and patented on November 4, 1862.[5][6] Gatling wrote that he created it to reduce the size of armies and so reduce the number of deaths by combat and disease, and to show how futile war is.[7]

Although the first Gatling gun was capable of firing continuously, it required a person to crank it; therefore it was not a true automatic weapon. The Maxim gun, invented and patented in 1883, was the first true fully automatic weapon, making use of the fired projectile''s innovation lay in the use of multiple barrels to limit overheating, a rotating mechanism, and a gravity-feed reloading system, which allowed unskilled operators to achieve a relatively high rate of fire of 200 rounds per minute.[6]

The US Army adopted Gatling guns in several calibers, including .42 caliber, .45-70, .50 caliber, 1 inch, and (M1893 and later) .30 Army, with conversions of M1900 weapons to .30-03 and .30-06.[8][9] The .45-70 weapon was also mounted on some US Navy ships of the 1880s and 1890s.[10]

British manufacturer James George Accles, previously employed by Colt 1867–1886, developed a modified Gatling gun circa 1888 known as the Accles Machine Gun.[11] Circa 1895 the American Ordnance Company acquired the rights to manufacture and distribute this weapon in the Americas. It was trialed by the US Navy in December 1895, and was said to be the only weapon to complete the trial out of five competing weapons, but was apparently not adopted by US forces.[12]

American Civil War and the Americas[edit]

The Gatling gun was first used in warfare during the American Civil War. Twelve of the guns were purchased personally by Union commanders and used in the trenches for 1 last update 2020/06/04 during the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia (June 1864 – April 1865).[13] Eight other Gatling guns were fitted on gunboats.[14] The gun was not accepted by the American Army until 1866, when a sales representative of the manufacturing company demonstrated it in combat.[15] The Gatling gun was first used in warfare during the American Civil War. Twelve of the guns were purchased personally by Union commanders and used in the trenches during the Siege of Petersburg, Virginia (June 1864 – April 1865).[13] Eight other Gatling guns were fitted on gunboats.[14] The gun was not accepted by the American Army until 1866, when a sales representative of the manufacturing company demonstrated it in combat.[15]

On July 17, 1863, Gatling guns were purportedly used to overawe New York anti-draft rioters.[16] Two were brought by a Pennsylvania National Guard unit from Philadelphia to use against strikers in Pittsburgh.

Gatling guns were famously not used at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as "", when Gen. George Armstrong Custer chose not to bring Gatlings with his main force.

In April 1867, a Gatling gun was purchased for for 1 last update 2020/06/04 the Argentine Army by minister Domingo F. Sarmiento under instructions from president Bartolomé Mitre.[17] In April 1867, a Gatling gun was purchased for the Argentine Army by minister Domingo F. Sarmiento under instructions from president Bartolomé Mitre.[17]

Captain Luis Germán Astete of the Peruvian Navy took with him dozens of Gatling guns from the United States to Peru in December 1879 during the Peru-Chile War of the Pacific. Gatling guns were used by the Peruvian Navy and Army, especially in the Battle of Tacna (May 1880) and the Battle of San Juan (January 1881) against the invading Chilean Army.

Lieutenant A.L. Howard of the Connecticut National Guard had an interest in the company manufacturing Gatling guns, and took a personally owned Gatling gun to Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1885 for use with the Canadian military against Métis rebels during Louis Riel''s Arms Company, was formed into a separate detachment led by Lt. John "" Parker.[23] The detachment proved very effective, supporting the advance of American forces at the Battle of San Juan Hill. Three of the Gatlings with swivel mountings were used with great success against the Spanish defenders.[3] During the American charge up San Juan and Kettle hills, the three guns fired a total of 18,000 .30 Army rounds in 8 1/2 minutes (an average of over 700 rounds per minute per gun of continuous fire) against Spanish troop positions along the crest of both hills, wreaking terrible carnage.[3][24]

Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for Despite this remarkable achievement, the Gatling''t until the Model 1881 that Gatling switched to the ''-style feed system (U.S. Patents 247,158 and 343,532) that accepted two rows of .45-70 cartridges. While one row was being fed into the gun, the other could be reloaded, thus allowing sustained fire. The final gun required four operators. By 1886, the gun was capable of firing more than 400 rounds per minute.

The smallest-caliber gun also had a Broadwell drum feed in place of the curved box of the other guns. The drum, named after L. W. Broadwell, an agent for Gatling''06 was an M1903 converted to .30-06. This conversion was principally carried out at the Army''s Model 1877 10-barrel gun, w/o carriage or mount.

  • ^ "". Archived from the original on 2016-02-24.
  • ^ a b c d Parker, John H. (Lt.), The Gatlings At Santiago, Middlesex, UK: Echo Library (reprinted 2006)
  • ^ Chambers, John W. (II) (2000). "". The Oxford Companion to American Military History. HighBeam Research Inc. Archived from the original on 2009-11-26. Retrieved Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for 2009-11-24.
  • ^ Richard J. Gatling, "" Archived 2017-01-20 at for 1 last update 2020/06/04 the Wayback Machine U.S. Patent No. 36,386 (issued: Nov. 4, 1862).Richard J. Gatling, "" Archived 2017-01-20 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Patent No. 36,386 (issued: Nov. 4, 1862).
  • ^ a b Greeley, Horace; Leon Case (1872). The Great Industries of the United States. J.B. Burr & Hyde. p. 944. ISBN 978-1-85506-627-4.
  • ^ Paul Wahl and Don Toppel, The Gatling Gun, Arco Publishing, 1971.
  • ^^ Paul Wahl and Don Toppel, The Gatling Gun, Arco Publishing, 1971, p. 155.
  • ^ Randolph, Captain W. S., 5th US Artillery Service and Description of Gatling Guns, 1878 Archived 2016-01-31 at the Wayback Machine
  • ^ Friedman, Norman (1984). U.S. Cruisers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 457–463. ISBN 978-0-87021-718-0.Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for
  • ^ History of Accles & Shelvoke from company website
  • ^^ Wooden Box Free Planhow to Wooden Box Free Plan for American Ordnance Company (1896). The Driggs-Schroeder System of rapid-fire guns, 2nd edition. Baltimore, MD: The Deutsch Lithographing and Printing Company. pp. Preface, 76. the 1 last update 2020/06/04
  • ^ Civil War Weapons And Equipment by Russ A. Pritchard Jnr.
  • ^ "". civilwarhome.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-25. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  • ^ a b c d e f Emmott, N.W. "" United States Naval Institute Proceedings September 1972 p. 70.
  • ^ Julia Keller, Mr. Gatling''s Terrible Marvel: The Gun That Changed Everything and the Misunderstood Genius Who Invented It at the Printers Row Book Fair, June 8, 2008
  • The Gatling Gun
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