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American car (1908-1927)
"" redirects here. For the financial formula, see T-model.
Ford Model T
1925 Ford Model T Touring
Overview
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
Production1908–1927
Assembly
List
DesignerHenry Ford, Childe Harold Wills, Joseph A. Galamb and Eugene Farkas
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size Ford, economy car
Body style
List
    • 2-door touring (1909–11)
    • 3-door touring (1912–25)
    • 4-door touring (1926–27)
    • no door roadster (1909–11)
    • 1-door roadster(1912–25)
    • 2-door roadster (1926–27)
    • roadster pickup (1925–27)
    • 2-door coupé (1909–12, 1917–27)
    • 2-door Coupelet (1915–17)
    • Town car (1909–18)
    • C-cab wagon (1912)
    • 2-(Center) door sedan (1915–23)
    • 2-door sedan (1924–27)
    • 4-door sedan (1923–27)
    • Separate chassis were available all years from independent coachbuilders
LayoutFR layout
Powertrain
Engine177 C.I.D. (2.9 L) 20 hp I4
Transmission2-speed planetary gear
Dimensions
Wheelbase100.0 in (2,540 mm)
Length134 in (3,404 mm)
Width1,676 mm (66.0 in) (1912 Roadster)[7]
Height1,860 mm (73.2 in) (1912 Roadster)[7]
Curb weight1,200–1,650 lb (540–750 kg)
Chronology
PredecessorFord Model N (1906–1908)
SuccessorFord Model A (1927–31)

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, jitney or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.[8][9] It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, which made car travel available to middle-class Americans. The relatively low price was partly the result of Ford''s Model T was successful not only because it provided inexpensive transportation on a massive scale, but also because the car signified innovation for the rising middle class and became a powerful symbol of the United States age of modernization.[12] With 16.5 million sold, it stood eighth on the top ten list of most sold cars of all time, as of 2012[update].[13]

Contents

IntroductionWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [editWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ]

Although automobiles had been produced from the 1880s, until the Model T was introduced in 1908, they were mostly scarce, expensive, and often unreliable. Positioned as reliable, easily maintained, mass-market transportation, it was a runaway success. In a matter of days after the release, 15,000 orders had been placed.[14] The first production Model T was built on August 12, 1908[15] and left the factory on September 27, 1908, at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan. On May 26, 1927, Henry Ford watched the 15 millionth Model T Ford roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan.[16]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Henry Ford conceived a series of cars between the founding of the company in 1903 and the introduction of the Model T. Ford named his first car the Model A and proceeded through the alphabet up through the Model T, twenty models in all. Not all the models went into production. The production model immediately before the Model T was the Model S,[17] an upgraded version of the company''s first automobile mass-produced on moving assembly lines with completely interchangeable parts, marketed to the middle class.[18] Henry Ford said of the vehicle:

I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for the family, but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family for 1 last update 2020/07/13 the blessing of hours of pleasure in God''s two decades of production. I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for the family, but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God''s two decades of production.

Engine for 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit]

Main article: Ford Model T engine
Model T engine

The Model T had a front-mounted 177-cubic-inch (2.9 L) inline four-cylinder engine, producing 20 hp (15 kW), for a top speed of 40–45 mph (64–72 km/h).[25] According to Ford Motor Company, the Model T had fuel economy on the order of 13–21 mpg‑US (16–25 mpg‑imp; 18–11 L/100 km).[26] The engine was capable of running on gasoline, kerosene, or ethanol,[27][28] although the decreasing cost of gasoline and the later introduction of Prohibition made ethanol an impractical fuel for most users. The engines of the first 2,447 units were cooled with water pumps; the engines of unit 2,448 and onward, with a few exceptions prior to around unit 2,500, were cooled by thermosiphon action.[29]

The ignition system used in the Model T was an unusual one, with a low-voltage magneto incorporated in the flywheel, supplying alternating current to trembler coils to drive the spark plugs. This was closer to that used for stationary gas engines than the expensive high-voltage ignition magnetos that were used on some other cars. This ignition also made the Model T more flexible as to the quality or type of fuel it used. The system did not need a starting battery, since proper hand-cranking would generate enough current for starting. Electric lighting powered by the magneto was adopted in 1915, replacing acetylene and oil lamps, but electric starting was not offered until 1919.[30]

The Model T engine was for 1 last update 13 Jul 2020 produced for replacement needs, as well as stationary and marine applications until 1941, well after production of the Model T had ended. The Model T engine was produced for replacement needs, as well as stationary and marine applications until 1941, well after production of the Model T had ended.

The Fordson Model F tractor engine, that was designed about a decade later, was very similar to, but larger than, the Model T engine.[31]

Transmission and drive train[edit for 1 last update 2020/07/13 ]]

The three pedal controls of the Model T
View of the driver''s terms it would be considered a two-speed, because one of the three speeds was reverse.

The Model T''s seat. The throttle was controlled with a lever on the steering wheel. The left pedal was used to engage the transmission. With the floor lever in either the mid position or fully forward and the pedal pressed and held forward, the car entered low gear. When held in an intermediate position, the car was in neutral. If the left pedal was released, the Model T entered high gear, but only when the lever was fully forward – in any other position, the pedal would only move up as far as the central neutral position. This allowed the car to be held in neutral while the driver cranked the engine by hand. The car could thus cruise without the driver having to press any of the pedals.

The first 800 units were sent in reverse with a lever; all units after that were sent in reverse with a pedal between the clutch and brake pedals.[29] The middle pedal was used to engage reverse gear when the car was in neutral. The right pedal operated the transmission brake – there were no brakes on the wheels. The floor lever also controlled the parking brake, which was activated by pulling the lever all the way back. This doubled as an emergency brake.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Although it was uncommon, the drive bands could fall out of adjustment, allowing the car to creep, particularly when cold, adding another hazard to attempting to start the car: a person cranking the engine could be forced backward while still holding the crank as the car crept forward, although it was nominally in neutral. As the car utilized a wet clutch, this condition could also occur in cold weather, when the thickened oil prevents the clutch discs from slipping freely. Power reached the differential through a single universal joint attached to a torque tube which drove the rear axle; some models (typically trucks, but available for cars, as well) could be equipped with an optional two-speed Ruckstell rear axle shifted by a floor-mounted lever which provided an underdrive gear for easier hill climbing. The heavy-duty Model TT truck chassis came with a special worm gear rear differential with lower gearing than the normal car and truck, giving more pulling power but a lower top speed (the frame was also stronger; the cab and engine were the same). A Model TT is easily identifiable by the cylindrical housing for the worm-drive over the axle differential. All gears were vanadium steel running in an oil bath.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Transmission bands and linings[edit]

Two main types of band lining material were used:[32]

  • Cotton – Cotton woven linings were the original type fitted and specified by Ford. Generally, the cotton lining is "" to the drum surface, with damage to the drum caused only by the retaining rivets scoring the drum surface. Although this in itself did not pose a problem, a dragging band resulting from improper adjustment caused overheating of the transmission and engine, diminished power, and – in the case of cotton linings – rapid destruction of the band lining.
  • Wood – Wooden linings were originally offered as a "" accessory part during the life of the Model T. They were a single piece of steam bent wood and metal wire, fitted to the normal Model T transmission band.[33] These bands give a very different feel to the pedals, with much more of a "" feel. The sensation is of a definite "" of the drum and seemed to noticeably increase the feel, in particular of the brake drum.

Suspension and wheels[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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The suspension components of a Ford Model T. The coil-spring device is an aftermarket accessory, the "".

Model T suspension employed a transversely mounted semi-elliptical spring for each of the front and rear beam axles which allowed a great deal of wheel movement to cope with the dirt roads of the time.

The front axle was drop forged as a single piece of vanadium steel. Ford twisted many axles through eight full rotations (2880 degrees) and sent them to dealers to be put on display to demonstrate its superiority. The Model T did not have a modern service brake. The right foot pedal applied a band around a drum in the transmission, thus stopping the rear wheels from turning. The previously mentioned parking brake lever operated band brakes acting on the inside of the rear brake drums, which were an integral part of the rear wheel hubs. Optional brakes that acted on the outside of the brake drums were available from aftermarket suppliers.

Wheels were wooden artillery wheels, with steel welded-spoke wheels available in 1926 and 1927.

Tires were pneumatic clincher type, 30 in (76 cm) in diameter, 3.5 in (8.9 cm) wide in the rear, 3 in (7.6 cm) in the front. Clinchers needed much higher pressure than today''s tires, with steel wires reinforcing the tire bead, making lower pressure possible – typically 35 psi (240 kPa) – giving a softer ride. The steering gear ratio was changed from 4:1 to 5:1 with the introduction of balloon tires.[34] The old nomenclature for tire size changed from measuring the outer diameter to measuring the rim diameter so 21 in (530 mm) (rim diameter) × 4.5 in (110 mm) (tire width) wheels has about the same outer diameter as 30 in (76 cm) clincher tires. All tires in this time period used an inner tube to hold the pressurized air; tubeless tires were not generally in use until much later.

Wheelbase was 100 inches (254 cm) and standard track width was 56 inch (142 cm); 60 inch (152 cm) track could be obtained on special order, "", identical to the pre-Civil War track gauge for many railroads in the former Confederacy. The standard 56 inch track being very near the standard ​4 foot 8 124 foot 8 12 inch railroad track gauge meant that Model Ts could be and frequently were, fitted with flanged wheels and used as railway vehicles; the availability of a 60in (5ft) version meant the same could be done on the few remaining Southern 5ft railways (these being the only nonstandard lines remaining, except for a few narrow-gauge lines of various sizes). Although a Model T could be adapted to run on track as narrow as 2ft gauge (Wiscasset, Waterville and Farmington RR, Maine has one), this was a more complex alteration.

Colors[edit]

By 1918, half of all the cars in the U.S. were Model Ts. In his autobiography, Ford reports that in 1909 he told his management team, ""[35]

However, in the first years of production from 1908 to 1913, the Model T was not available in black[36] but rather only gray, green, blue, and red. Green was available for the touring cars, town cars, coupes, and Landaulets. Gray was only available for the town cars, and red only for the touring cars. By 1912, all cars were being painted midnight blue with black fenders. Only in 1914 was the "" policy finally implemented. It is often stated Ford suggested the use of black from 1914 to 1926 due to the low cost, durability, and faster drying time of black paint in that era. Paint choices in the American automotive industry, as well as in others (including locomotives, furniture, bicycles, and the rapidly expanding field of electrical appliances), were shaped by the development of the chemical industry. These included the disruption of dye sources during World War I and the advent, in the the 1 last update 2020/07/13 mid-1920s, of new nitrocellulose lacquers that were faster-drying and more scratch-resistant, and obviated the need for multiple coats;[37]:261–301 understanding the choice of paints for the Model T era and the years immediately following requires an understanding of the contemporary chemical industry.[37] However, in the first years of production from 1908 to 1913, the Model T was not available in black[36] but rather only gray, green, blue, and red. Green was available for the touring cars, town cars, coupes, and Landaulets. Gray was only available for the town cars, and red only for the touring cars. By 1912, all cars were being painted midnight blue with black fenders. Only in 1914 was the "" policy finally implemented. It is often stated Ford suggested the use of black from 1914 to 1926 due to the low cost, durability, and faster drying time of black paint in that era. Paint choices in the American automotive industry, as well as in others (including locomotives, furniture, bicycles, and the rapidly expanding field of electrical appliances), were shaped by the development of the chemical industry. These included the disruption of dye sources during World War I and the advent, in the mid-1920s, of new nitrocellulose lacquers that were faster-drying and more scratch-resistant, and obviated the need for multiple coats;[37]:261–301 understanding the choice of paints for the Model T era and the years immediately following requires an understanding of the contemporary chemical industry.[37]

During the lifetime production of the Model T, over 30 types of black paint were used on various parts of the car.[36] These were formulated to satisfy the different means of applying the paint to the various parts, and had distinct drying times, depending on the part, paint, and method of drying.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Body[edit]

1910 Model T, photographed in Salt Lake City
1917 Model T
T Speedster
1925 Ford "" T Tudor Sedan

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Although Ford classified the Model T with a single letter designation throughout its entire life and made no distinction by model years, enough significant changes to the body were made over the production life that the car may be classified into several style generations. Among the most immediately visible and identifiable changes were in the hood and cowl areas, although many other modifications were made to the vehicle.

  • 1909–1914 – Characterized by a nearly straight, five-sided hood, with a flat top containing a center hinge and two side sloping sections containing the folding hinges. The firewall was flat from the windshield down with no distinct cowl.
  • 1915–1916 – The hood design was nearly the same five-sided design with the only obvious change being the addition of louvers to the vertical sides. A significant change to the cowl area occurred with the windshield relocated significantly behind the firewall and joined with a compound-contoured cowl panel.
  • 1917–1923 – The hood design was changed to a tapered design with a curved top. The folding hinges were now located at the joint between the flat sides and the curved top. This is sometime referred to as the "" to distinguish it from the later hoods. The back edge of the hood now met the front edge of the cowl panel so that no part of the flat firewall was visible outside of the hood. This design was used the longest and during the highest production years, accounting for about half of the total number of Model Ts built.
  • 1923–1925 – This change was made during the 1923 calendar year, so models built earlier in the year have the older design, while later vehicles have the newer design. The taper of the hood was increased and the rear section at the firewall is about an inch taller and several inches wider than the previous design. While this is a relatively minor change, the parts between the third and fourth generations are not interchangeable.
  • 1926–1927 – This design change made the greatest difference in the appearance of the car. The hood was again enlarged, with the cowl panel no longer a compound curve and blended much more with the line of the hood. The distance between the firewall and the windshield was also increased significantly. This style is sometimes referred to as the "".

The styling on the last "" was a preview for the following Model A, but the two models are visually quite different, as the body on the A was much wider and had curved doors as opposed to the flat doors on the T.

Diverse applications[edit]

A Model T homemade tractor pulling a plow
Pullford auto-to-tractor conversion advertisement, 1918
The American LaFrance company modified more than 900 Ford Model T''s. Pavement was a rarity except for sidewalks and a few big-city streets. (The sense of the term "" as equivalent with "" comes from that era, when streets and roads were generally dirt and sidewalks were a paved way to walk along them.) Agriculture was the occupation of many people. Power tools were scarce outside factories, as were power sources for them; electrification, like pavement, was found usually only in larger towns. Rural electrification and motorized mechanization were embryonic in some regions and nonexistent in most. Henry Ford oversaw the requirements and design of the Model T based on contemporary realities. Consequently, the Model T was (intentionally) almost as much a tractor and portable engine as it was an automobile. It has always been well regarded for its all-terrain abilities and ruggedness. It could travel a rocky, muddy farm lane, cross a shallow stream, climb a steep hill, and be parked on the other side to have one of its wheels removed and a pulley fastened to the hub for a flat belt to drive a bucksaw, thresher, silo blower, conveyor for filling corn cribs or haylofts, baler, water pump, electrical generator, and many other applications. One unique application of the Model T was shown in the October 1922 issue of Fordson Farmer magazine. It showed a minister who had transformed his Model T into a mobile church, complete with small organ.[38]

During this era, entire automobiles (including thousands of Model Ts) were even hacked apart by for 1 last update 2020/07/13 their owners and reconfigured into custom machinery permanently dedicated to a purpose, such as homemade tractors and ice saws.[39] Dozens of aftermarket companies sold prefab kits to facilitate the T''s RM class included a few. During this era, entire automobiles (including thousands of Model Ts) were even hacked apart by their owners and reconfigured into custom machinery permanently dedicated to a purpose, such as homemade tractors and ice saws.[39] Dozens of aftermarket companies sold prefab kits to facilitate the T''s RM class included a few.

The American LaFrance company modified more than 900 Model T''s cars came off the line in three-minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, reducing production time from 12.5 hours before to 93 minutes by 1914, while using less manpower.[48] In 1914, Ford produced more cars than all other automakers combined. The Model T was a great commercial success, and by the time Ford made its 10 millionth car, half of all cars in the world were Fords. It was so successful Ford did not purchase any advertising between 1917 and 1923; instead, the Model T became so famous, people considered it a norm. More than 15 million Model Ts were manufactured in all, reaching a rate of 9,000 to 10,000 cars a day in 1925, or 2 million annually,[49][50][51] more than any other model of its day, at a price of just $260. Total Model T production was finally surpassed by the Volkswagen Beetle on February 17, 1972.

Ford statistics, 1910-1931

Henry Ford''s block to build popular and cheap racing engines, including Cragar, Navarro, and famously the Frontenacs ("")[53] of the Chevrolet brothers, among many others.

The Model T employed some advanced technology, for example, its use of vanadium steel alloy. Its durability was phenomenal, and some Model Ts and their parts are in running order over a century later. Although Henry Ford resisted some kinds of change, he always championed the advancement of materials engineering, and often mechanical engineering and industrial engineering.

In 2002, Ford built a final batch of six Model Ts as part of their 2003 centenary celebrations. These cars were assembled from remaining new components and other parts produced from the original drawings. The last of the six was used for publicity purposes in the UK.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Although Ford no longer manufactures parts for the Model T, many parts are still manufactured through private companies as replicas to service the thousands of Model Ts still in operation today.

On May 26, 1927, Henry Ford and his son Edsel drove the 15-millionth Model T out of the factory.[16] This marked the famous automobile''s fiscal year. From 1909 to 1913, the fiscal year was from October 1 to September 30 the following calendar year with the year number being the year in which it ended. For the 1914 fiscal year, the year was October 1, 1913, through July 31, 1914. Starting in August 1914, and through the end of the Model T era, the fiscal year was August 1 through July 31. Beginning with January 1920, the figures are for the calendar year.

Year Production Price for
Runabout
Current
Equivalent
Cost
Notes
1909 10,666 $825 $23,476 Touring car was $850.
1910 19,050 $900 $24,695
1911 34,858 $680 $18,659
1912 68,773 $590 $15,631
1913 170,211 $525 $13,581
1914 202,667 $440 $11,231 Fiscal year was only 10 months long due to change in end date from September 30 to July 31
1915 308,162 $390 $9,856
1916 501,462 $345 $8,106 [59]
1917 735,020 $500 $9,978
1918 664,076 $500 $8,499
1919 498,342 $500 $7,373
1920 941,042 $395 $5,041 Production for fiscal year 1920, (August 1, 1919 through July 31, 1920). Price was $550 in March but dropped by September
1920 463,451 $395 $5,041 Production for balance of calendar year, August 1 through December 31. Total '' production (17 months) = 1,404,493
1921 971,610 $325 $4,659 Price was $370 in June but dropped by September
1922 1,301,067 $319 $4,873
1923 2,011,125 $364 $5,462
1924 1,922,048 $265 $3,953
1925 1,911,705 $260 $3,790 Touring car was $290
1926 1,554,465 $360 $5,199
1927 399,725 $360 $5,299 Production ended before mid-year to allow retooling for the Model A

The above tally includes a total of 14,689,525 vehicles. Ford said the last Model T was the 15 millionth vehicle produced.[16]

Recycling[edit]

Henry Ford used wood scraps from the production of Model Ts to make charcoal briquettes. Originally named Ford Charcoal, the name was changed to Kingsford Charcoal after the Iron Mountain Ford Plant closed in 1951 and the Kingsford Chemical Company was formed and continued the wood distillation process. E. G. Kingsford, Ford''s network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in virtually every city in North America. A large the 1 last update 2020/07/13 part of the success of Ford''s Brave New World, Henry Ford is regarded as a messianic figure, Christian crosses have been truncated to Ts, and vehicles are called "" (from a slang reference to the Model T). Moreover, the calendar is converted to an A.F. ("") system, wherein the calendar begins (AF 1) with the introduction of the Model T (AD 1908). The well-known phrase God is in his heaven, all is right with the world (originating from Robert Browning''s current models in the stories, Hazel acquires a 1920 Model T.

  • Lizzie from the Cars franchise is based on a 1923 Ford Model T Coupe.[77]
  • In the alternate history series Southern Victory by Harry Turtledove, the Model T was the most popular car in the United States before the Great War. It was so desirable that it was even exported to the Confederate States, which won the American Civil War in 1862. However, Model T''s served as Staff Cars for US generals and officers.
  • Gallery[edit]

    Henry Ford used wood scraps from the production of Model Ts to make charcoal briquettes. Originally named Ford Charcoal, the name was changed to Kingsford Charcoal after the Iron Mountain Ford Plant closed in 1951 and the Kingsford Chemical Company was formed and continued the wood distillation process. E. G. Kingsford, Ford''s network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in virtually every city in North America. A large part of the success of Ford''s Brave New World, Henry Ford is regarded as a messianic figure, Christian crosses have been truncated to Ts, and vehicles are called "" (from a slang reference to the Model T). Moreover, the calendar is converted to an A.F. ("") system, wherein the calendar begins (AF 1) with the introduction of the Model T (AD 1908). The well-known phrase God is in his heaven, all is right with the world (originating from Robert Browning''s current models in the stories, Hazel acquires a 1920 Model T.
  • Lizzie from the Cars franchise is based on a 1923 Ford Model T Coupe.[77]
  • In the alternate history series Southern Victory by Harry Turtledove, the Model T was the most popular car in the United States before the Great War. It was so desirable that it was even exported to the Confederate States, which won the American Civil War in 1862. However, Model T''s served as Staff Cars for US generals and officers.
  • Gallery[edit]

    Model T chronology

    • 1909 Touring (a very early example with two-pedal, two-lever control)

    • 1909 Roadster

    • 1909 Tourabout (like the Touring, but without rear doors)

    • 1911 Touring

    • 1911 Torpedo Runabout

    • Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for 1911 Open Runabout

    • Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for 1912 the 1 last update 2020/07/13 Touring 1912 Touring

    • 1912 Commercial Roadster

    • 1912 Torpedo Runabout

    • 1912 Delivery Car

    • 1913 Touring

    • 1913 Runabout

    • 1914 Touring

    • 1914 Runabout

    • 1915 Runabout – Note curved cowl panel

    • 1916 Touring

    • 1917 Runabout – Note new curved hood matches cowl panel

    • 1919 Runabout

    • 1920 Touring

    • 1921 Touring

    • 1922 Runabout

    • 1922 flatbed truck

    • 1923 Ford Model T Depot Hack

    • 1923 Runabout (early ''23 models were similar

    • 1924–1925 Runabout

    • 1925 Touring – Note the balloon tires and split rims, optional extras of the period.

    • 1925 Touring

    • Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for 1926 Runabout – Note higher hood and longer cowl panel

    • 1927 Runabout

    • 1927 Touring – Last Ford Model T built at Highland Park Ford Plant

    • 1928 Ford Model A Tudor Sedan – Shown for comparison, note wider body and curved doors

    See the 1 last update 2020/07/13 alsoSee also[edit]

    • Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Cars portal

    Notes the 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit]

    1. ^ Boyer, Mike (May 10, 1998). "". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
    2. ^^ "". Cleveland Historical. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
    3. ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Darbee, Jeff (July 2014). "". Columbus Monthly. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
    4. ^ "". MotorTexas. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
    5. ^ Cherney, Bruce (March 14, 2013). "". Winnipeg Real Estate News. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
    6. ^ "". Retrieved September 15, 2015.
    7. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ a b "". Carsized. Switzerland. Retrieved August the 1 last update 2020/07/13 23, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
    8. ^ "" (Press release). US: Forid. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
    9. ^ Gordon, John Steele. "". American Heritage (February/March 2007). Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved March 18, 2017.Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for
    10. ^ Price, R. G. (January 29, 2004). "". RationalRevolution.net. Retrieved Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for March 28, 2015.Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for
    11. ^ Cobb, James G. (December 24, 1999). "". New York Times. Retrieved Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for March 28, 2015.
    12. ^ a b Folkmann, Mads Nygaard (2011). "". Design and Culture. 3 (1): 51–74. doi:10.2752/175470810X12863771378752.
    13. ^ "". Autoguide.com. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
    14. ^ Curcio, Vincent (2013). Henry Ford. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195316926.
    15. ^ "". Library.thinkquest.org. 1908. Archived from the original on February 11, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
    16. ^ a b c "". John Wiley & Sons. 1996. Retrieved December 24, 2012. for 1 last update 2020/07/13
    17. ^^ Ritzinger, André. "". p. 5. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
    18. ^ a b c Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269, OCLC 1104810110
    19. ^^ Ford & Crowther 1922, p. 73 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFordCrowther1922 (help).
    20. ^ Domm, Robert W. (2009). Michigan Yesterday & Today. Minneapolis: Voyageur Press. ISBN 9781616731380. for 1 last update 2020/07/13
    21. ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for "". Ford. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved January the 1 last update 2020/07/13 17,January 17, 2011.
    22. ^^ "" India: Federation of Automobile Dealers Associations of India. February 27, 2006. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
    23. ^ Wik 1972.
    24. ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Clymer 1950, p. 100.
    25. ^ Boggess, Trent E.; Patterson, Ronald (February 20, 2006). "". US: Plymouth State CollegeWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for . Retrieved July 6, 2017.
    26. ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for "". Ford. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
    27. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ English, Andrew (July 25, 2008). "". The Telegraph. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
    28. ^^ Addison, Keith. "". Journey to Forever. Retrieved December 24, 2012. for 1 last update 2020/07/13
    29. ^ a b Kimes & Clark Jr. (1989), p. 551.
    30. ^^ "". The Frontenac Motor Company & The Ford Model T. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
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    87. External linksWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [edit]

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